Are Pen-reared Quail a Disease Threat to Wild Quail


Thomas H. Eleazer, DVM Avian Disease Consultant

Introduction by Jim Evans , Consulting Biologist


Dr. Tom Eleazer received his degree of Veterinary Medicine from the University of Georgia in 1958 and served Clemson University as a veterinary pathologist, studying poultry and game bird diseases for 31 years. Tom is still actively applying his skills as a poultry and game bird disease consultant. In the past he has served as president of the South Carolina Wildlife Federation, served on the advisory board for the Institute of Wildlife and Environmental Toxicology, and also as a member of the Wildlife & Freshwater Fisheries Advisory Board for the South Carolina Wildlife Commission. He was also instrumental in the development of the vaccine for “quail pox”.

Now lets hear what he has to say about the question: Are pen-reared quail a disease threat to wild birds?

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This question seems to remain on the mind of some quail managers and sportsmen throughout the Southeast. It comes up anytime landowners are considering the release of pen-reared birds on their property.

My remarks in this article are based on 39 years of experience with game bird and poultry disease diagnosis and research. I have dealt with both pen-reared and wild bird diseases. In 31 of these years I was with the Clemson University Livestock-Poultry Disease Diagnostic Laboratory. During all this time I have yet to see a disease condition in wild bobwhite quail that could be traced to pen-reared birds being released into a wild environment. In the space allotted me in this article, I will address a few diseases that seem to be causing the most concern.

Ulcerative Enteritis (UE) First, lets talk about the most common disease of pen-reared bobwhite quail, ulcerative enteritis (UE). This disease can be devastating in pen-reared birds. A study that was funded by the North American Game Bird Association at Mississippi State University showed that several other anaerobic bacteria including some genera of Bacillus could also cause this disease, previously thought to be caused by the bacterium Clostridium colinum. While UE could in all probability be spread by filth, it has been shown that this doesnt have to be the case. In fact, the causative organisms are carried in the gut of all bobwhite quail. When the birds are stressed, the organisms reproduce, and the bird gets sick. My theory is that UE may well be a part of the natural mortality experienced by wild quail especially during the time of late winter stress. However, I have never been able to prove this, since in the wild sick or weak birds are quickly removed by scavengers.Quail Pox Quail pox is another disease that concerns many people. This is a viral disease that seemed to emerge in the late sixties or early seventies. It caused quite a bit of problem for the game bird growers. For a number of years, I have been examining wild quail harvested on a large South Carolina plantation, where there are no records of pen-reared quail ever being released. During the mid- eighties, this investigation revealed the presence of pox lesions in about 6 percent of the specimens. These were the highest levels. Since then the presence of pox lesions has decreased to a background level of plus or minus 1 percent. In a further effort to prove this virus already existed in the environment, disease free bobwhite quail, raised in isolation, were placed in the field in cages on this and a neighboring plantation. Within two weeks the control birds were showing pox lesions. Therefore, this virus appears already be naturally occurring in the coastal plain. I feel that quail pox poses little or no additional threat to wild birds through the introduction of released quail. It is recommended that all pen-reared quail used in release projects be immunized against quail pox. This not only will prevent pox from being brought in to the wild birds, but will also prevent released birds from contracting pox from any infected native birds.

Coccidiosis What about coccidiosis? I have done quite a few checks for internal parasites in both wild and pen-reared birds over the years. I have found that this protozoan exists at low levels in most wild quail populations. Medications are used to control this threat in young pen-reared quail. Healthy, well-managed pen-reared birds are probably less of a coccidiosis threat than their wild counterparts.

Another protozoan named Cryptosporidium causes this disease, and it specifically infects bobwhite quail. In the confinement of a flight pen, it can infect and kill up to 100% of the quail. It is similar to coccidiosis but more severe. As part of an in-depth investigation of avian crytosporidiosis, workers at North Carolina State University conducted studies on the incidence of this disease in wild bobwhite populations. Of 424 samples from wild quail, 3.1% yielded Cryptosporidium oocysts. This was a random sample from a “normal healthy” wild population. This finding appears to tell us that Cryptosporidium is already present at low levels in the environment. With this in mind, I feel that the release of healthy bobwhite quail poses little or no threat to wild populations. This disease can be devastating in pen-reared birds while in confinement, but thankfully it is not common in occurrence.

Histomoniasis (Blackhead Disease) This too is a protozoan disease that is transmitted by the chicken cecal worm. Bobwhites are somewhat resistant to “blackhead”, but some fairly virulent strains of the organism have appeared in recent years. Quail growers that are raising birds on wire floors, or those with aggressive worming programs, have largely eliminated this threat by controlling cecal worm infections. Free ranging yard chickens are a far greater threat as far as this disease is concerned.

Capillaria (Thread worm) These are long, slender, white worms that infect the crop and esophagus. This parasite actually starves the bird to death once the infection is heavy enough. I have seen this parasite in wild bobwhites at low levels. Again, those game bird growers with aggressive worming programs have successfully controlled this problem. This parasite poses little threat to wild populations.

Avian Influenza (AI)
This highly contagious viral disease has the potential of devastating the poultry and game bird industries. Most outbreaks of (AI), such as the recent occurrence in North Carolina, start out as “mild” strains with low disease causing potential. However, as these “milder” strains are passed from bird to bird they can become much “stronger” due to changes that take place in their genetic makeup. Natural reservoirs of (AI) exist in waterfowl and certain shore birds. These birds seem to be able to carry and shed the virus yet not be affected by it. Live poultry markets scattered throughout the U.S. appear to be the most likely source for (AI) infection. While bobwhite quail and other game birds are susceptible to (AI) infection, to my knowledge neither wild nor commercial quail have been established as reservoirs of this virus.This disease should not be taken lightly. Dont be upset if a grower is cautious about letting you in his facility. He doesnt know what you may be tracking into his operation. There are already sources of (AI) viruses in nature, but we must strive to keep it out of our commercial poultry and game bird industries.Summary I grew up hunting wild quail in coastal South Carolina, and later in south Georgia. I have a very high respect for this resource and feel that efforts need to continue to promote this valued part of our heritage. I wish we had enough wild bobwhite quail for every quail hunter to have the opportunity to hunt, but unfortunately this is not the case. Hunting released birds is a viable alternative to wild bird hunting. However, it is imperative that the released birds be obtained from a source that practices a conscientious health program. This is important for two reasons. First, unhealthy birds probably will not perform well in the field. Second, we have a moral obligation not to release birds into the habitat that could pose a disease threat to what is left of our wild bird resource. However, most of the diseases mentioned in this article are only a problem while the birds are being raised in confinement. They rarely occur as outbreaks in the wild. Thus, it is my sincere belief that the threat of disease being introduced into our native population by released birds is minimal at best, but we must continue to be vigilant and take steps to keep it this way. The first step being to obtain healthy birds from a reputable supplier who implements a good health maintenance program.

5 thoughts on “Are Pen-reared Quail a Disease Threat to Wild Quail

  1. Jeff Craddock

    Although this article is a couple of years old, I truly appreciate these answers to common questions that those of us into quail restoration face. As a fellow Clemson grad (1988 Zoology), land-owner in So. Carolina and with some knowledge of avian life and an avid bird hunter, I hope we can see more articles like this from this author. Thanks again for a great website!


    I am a farmer in small town of newberry We have one covey of wild quail where 40 used to habit when Clemson won the NCAA football championship! We leave hedges; plant crops for birds but no results? Turkeys are abundant ;could they be part of the problem along with coyotes; fireants? Enjoyed your article Tom…… William

  3. Jim Evans

    Years ago the entire landscape of the southeast was much more “quail friendly” than it is today. Farmers rotated crops and rested fields from farming for a season or two, which created brood habitat and nesting areas for quail. Farming was not as “clean” as it is today, so much of the crop was available for small game as well.
    Today it is much different.
    Fields are much larger and farmed each year.
    Fallow fields have been replaced with planted pines. The lack of a fur market has caused a surge in varmint populations and the Coopers hawk population has risen at least 800 percent since the mid 60’s. When these and many other factors are combined – the result is low quail populations.
    By creating good bird habitat, conducting predator control, and providing supplemental feed, I have been able to establish coveys of early released quail in my hunting areas for the past twenty years.
    In summary, I believe the decline of the quail population is not one factor, but rather, a combination of many.
    Our business strives to help people to establish a huntable population of quail on their land by offering information and equipment we believe will help do the job.

  4. Mike gobble

    In southeast Tenn. Farmable land that is not farmed is bushedhogged . This land could b planted in milo. For all wildlife . Not just green food plots for deer.

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